Pay As You Speed

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Pay As You Speed
General information
Type: Field operational test
Tested system/service: Intelligent Speed Adaptation
Countries: Denmark ? test users
4 partners 180 vehicles
Active from 2004/01/01 to 2009
Harry Lahrmann
Aalborg University
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Pay As You Drive an Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project in Denmark based on Pay As You Drive principles, which means that the ISA equipment both gives a warning when the driver is speeding but also gives penalty points which reduce a promised bonus of 30 % on the insurance rate. In the project there has been developed an On Board Unit (OBU) for ISA with a mobile phone (GPRS) connection to a web server, and with an advanced map matching program, and air based map update function. In the project there is also developed a speed map for 22,000 km roads, including a web based maintaining tool. The project was planned for a three year test period with 300 young car drivers. After 3 years and several changes in the conditions for participation in the project 180 test drivers of any age have been recruited for the FOT. Primary results are promising: On rural roads with a speed limit at 80 km/h there is a decrease of speeding from 29 % to 2 % of the total kilometers driven.

In the project we have logged the participants driving every second and vi has collected 300 million raw with log data. We are interested in corporation with other ISA research project in doing comparative studies. Based on the 300 million raw with log data from this project we are also doing more general research about using Floating Car Data in Traffic Management. Also in this area we are interesting in corporation. Interested are welcome to contact us.

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

FOT Start: June 2006, End December 2008

Geographical Coverage

All roads in Denmark with a speed limit on or above 90 + all roads in North Jutland

Link with other related Field Operational Tests

Our FOT is based on the results from a previous ISA project at Aalborg University called INFATI carried out in years 1999 to 2001


  • To develop a digital road map with speed limit and a web based maintenance tools
  • To develop and ISA OBU based on both information, warning and incentive and with a GPRS connection to a webserver where users have access to their own speeding information
  • To test the system in a large FOT with 300 young drivers


Primary results are promising: On rural roads with a speed limit at 80 km/h there is a decrease of speeding from 29 % to 2 % of the total kilometers driven.

Lessons learned

Main events


Summary, type of funding and budget





Cooperation partners and contact persons

  • Universities:
    Aalborg University
    Copenhagen University

Main Contact person

Harry Lahrmann
Associate Professor and project manager in the FOT
Traffic Research Group
Department of Development and Planning
Aalborg University
Fibigerstraede 11
9220 Aalborg Oest

Phone +45 9635 8381
Mobile: +45 4056 0375

Applications and equipment

Applications tested


180 cars

Private cars with after market systems

Equipment carried by test users


Test equipment



Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

Yes – comprehensive tests of the OBU – and user tests with 10 testdrivers in 1 month.

Method for the baseline

A six week baseline period with the system OFF.

Techniques for measurement and data collection

Collected data

Objective (logged data…)

  • 300 million raw logged every second
  • accident data

Logdata uploaded to a webserver through GPRS.

Subjective (questionnaires, focus groups…)

  • 3 questionnaires for test drivers
  • 2 questionnaires for a control group

Recruitment goals and methods

It was planned to get a statistically representative part of the target group – young car owners from the participating insurance company – but only a few voluntary signed the project – and even we in the end accepted all drivers in all ages we only reached 153 drivers and not 300 as planned – so there are for sure bias in our group.

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Hotline, general webpages and a personal webpage with the participants speeding attitude.

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

Logdata from OBU and results from questionnaires are stored and analysed in an oracle database.

Sources of information