|Type: Field operational test|
|Tested system/service: Intelligent Speed Adaptation|
|Countries: Sweden||650 test users|
|5 partners||? vehicles|
|Active from 2008/02/01 to 2009/09/30|
|Data catalogue||Tools catalogue|
|Data sets used in this FOT:
||The following tools|
were used in this FOT:
MOTION has been an R&D-project ending with a Field Operational Test. MOTION has been partly financed by the Swedish IVSS-program. In MOTION an offboard Speed Alert (ISA) service for mobile phones has been developed. Speed Alert is combined with a commercial offboard navigation system.
The objective of MOTION has been to study how an ISA/Speed Alert application should be designed to achieve as high acceptance as possible by individual users. With high acceptance it will be possible to reach new potential user groups for Speed Alert and to increase the number of users several times.
In order to enable a large user group, the solution is built upon the commercial offboard navigation systems Telia Navigator and Wisepilot for mobile phones. The systems are extended with Speed Alert. The driver can choose between three modes: Navigation mode, map mode or warnings only. An offset can be set by the driver to a value between -5 and +30 km/h and a warning occurs when current speed + the offset exceeds the current speed limit. The current speed limit is always visible. Data are pushed from the National Road database (NVDB) every night which means that speed limits are always up-to-date in the application.
A field test has been carried out where log data from 650 drivers have been collected. All test drivers got questionnaires before and during the field test. In general the test drivers were very positive to the Speed Alert service. The target group for this kind of non-mandatory system is drivers that normally use navigation services and have a will to avoid too much speeding.
Details of Field Operational Test
Start date and duration of FOT execution
Start date 01/03/2009, end date 31/08/2009, duration 6 months
The whole road network of Sweden, all roads and streets.
The overall objectives for MOTION have been to:
- Increase the acceptance and use of Speed Alert both at commercial and non-commercial drivers. By that reach new user groups and enable an increase in the number of users of Speed Alert services several times.
- Study how and when the drivers want to be warned about speeding and how much these user defined warnings differ from the speed limit.
- Enable cross border use of Speed Alert services.
- Increase the available content for integrated safety services combined with navigation.
To reach the objectives, the following activities have been carried out:
- Develop an offboard Speed Alert service for mobile phones, which is brought into line with the consumer market and combined with navigation.
- Analyze Speed Alert for the consumer market in respect of:
- Conditions for acceptance of Speed Alert.
- Possible incentives.
- Investigate possible business models to reach a large consumer market.
- Together with OEMs analyze possible strategies for integration of services in nomadic devices into vehicles.
The main conclusion that were found from the field tests are:
- Most test pilots (90%) changed the settings themselves, which proves that different users prefer different warning settings.
- As much as 93% of the test pilots thought that Speed Alert was very or quite good. This is a very high figure. We also got very positive response by phone calls and e-mails from test pilots. The conclusion is that this kind of system fits a need and works very well.
- The ability to change the speed warning settings usually decrease the effect the systems have on drivers’ speeding behaviour and therefore also the systems traffic safety potentials. The target group for this kind of non-mandatory system is on the other hand, drivers that have a will to avoid to much speeding.
- The test group was rather biased: 96% were men, they had a large interest in technology and a large yearly mileage, (58% of them had driven 20 000 km or more during the previous year). This tells us that this kind of solution will not reach all kind of drivers, but the group that will use it, is indeed an interesting target group for Speed Alert.
- To integrate Speed Alert with Navigation is as we see it the best way to reach large user groups for Speed Alert. 962 drivers did test the Speed Alert functionality in this field test.
- Speed Alert functionality that can be downloaded as a software component to existing platforms in the car (e.g. a mobile phone) works fine and enables a large user group.
- 70% of the test drivers stated that they never or very rarely had had any problems seeing the visual speed warning, which suggests that the size of the visual speed warning available in Speed Alert is sufficient and not the barrier for using Speed Alert in an efficient way, even if a larger size of the display would have been preferred.
- The test drivers stated that they drove with Speed Alert activated for nearly half of their driving time. The barrier for using Speed Alert more is that the driver sees it as unnecessary in a familiar environment and the fact that it works best in navigation mode and it takes some time to search for a destination. To increase the usage time, it is necessary to make it really easy and fast to start Speed Alert both with and without navigation active. It is also important for navigation suppliers to make it easier to search for the destination of a route, but that is a general issue for all navigation suppliers.
- There is a willingness to pay some extra money (64% of the test drivers were willing to pay an average of 12 SEK/month) for Speed Alert even if it is low. To reach a large user group it is although recommended to find business models that allow for inclusion of Speed Alert in the basic Navigation service.
In the near future we will see three different approaches to ISA/speed Alert:
- Mandatory ISA-devices in vehicle fleets owned by public organizations. The Swedish Road Administration and the town of Stockholm already use customized ISA-devices.
- ISA/Speed Alert-services integrated in fleet management systems at commercial fleets. OKQ8 in Sweden is one example, using a vehicle platform from Fleetech with “SpeedWarning”.
- ISA/Speed Alert integrated in PND:s or mobile phones that could be used by usual car drivers. The solution developed in MOTION is such an example.
There is no doubt that Speed Alert will be spread in the coming years, although we have two obstacles for the fast spread of Speed Alert:
- To find business models which are valid for all stakeholders.
- The availability of speed limit data on a pan Europe level.
Customers of Navigation services expect more and more functionality and lower and lower prices. Speed Alert is a wanted service, but the will to pay for it is very low. Suppliers of Navigation services need to implement Sped Alert in their base service concept and they cannot pay too much for the implementation. To get a commercial break trough it might be necessary for some support from public authorities in early stages.
For pan European use of Speed Alert the availability of quality assured speed limit data is a bottleneck. It is available in Sweden and it will come in Norway soon. Navteq and Tele Atlas are working hard in most countries in Europe to gather speed limit data, but it will take some time to reach a level that is accepted by the users.
If we look a few years into the future, we will see better possibilities for nomadic devices to be integrated in cars which allows for better solutions. Even better we will see open platforms in usual cars which allows for a large number of third party applications to run in the car and among them Speed Alert most probably integrated in Navigation services. More on that in chapter 5 and in the report “Integration of Service Integration into cars” produced within the MOTION-project.
MOTION has been presented at Transportforum 2009, TrafikGIS 2009, ITS World Congress 2009, VICT conference Lindholmen 2009. The result of the Car Integration investigation has been presented at the congress AMCIS (American Conference on Information Systems) 2009. Some more presentations will come after the end of the project, e.g. at Transportforum 2010.
Presentations and papers that has been produced within MOTION are available on the website http://motion.triona.se
On the website you can find these presentations:
- Overview of MOTION created when the project started
- Presentation given at Transportforum January 2009, Per-Olof Svensk, (Swedish)
- Presentation given at TrafikGIS January 2009, Per-Olof Svensk, (Swedish)
- Presentation given at ITS World Congress 2009, Per-Olof Svensk – An overview of the whole project
- Presentation given at ITS World Congress 2009, Carina Fors, Magnus Hjälmdahl, Henriette Wallén Warner – presents the results
These papers are available on the web site:
- Paper for AMCIS 2009, Lena Andreasson, Installed Base in Service Innovation
- Paper for ITS World Congress 2009, Per-Olof Svensk – Speed Alert integrated with Navigation in Mobile phones
- Paper for ITS World Congress 2009, Magnus Hjälmdahl and Carina Fors – Evaluation of acceptance and traffic safety with a Speed Alert function
Summary, type of funding and budget
0.5 Mio EUR
0.29 Mio EUR
0.21 Mio EUR
Cooperation partners and contact persons
Per-Olof Svensk, Triona AB, Projectmanager
Anders Frantz, Appello AB, Responisble Software solution
Magnus Hjälmdahl, VTI, Responsible evaluation
Johnny Svedlund, SRA
Lena Andreasson, Viktoriainstitute
- Public Authorities: STA (Swedish Transport Administration, formerly Swedish Road Administration)
- Supplier: Appello Systems AB, Triona AB
- Research Institutes: VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Viktoria Institute
Main contact person
Per-Olof Svensk Triona AB Project manager MOTION email@example.com Mobile phone: +46 70 572 6864
Applications and equipment
Speed Alert was introduced as a feature in Wisepilot and Telia Navigator that offered the test pilots the possibility to see the posted speed limit and get a warning (configurable in terms of how and when to warn) when speeding within Sweden.
Speed Alert is based on speed limit data located in the National Road Database, NVDB, for which the Swedish Road Administration has responsibility.
As soon as the user has installed Wisepilot/Telia Navigator and the GPS receiver has a fixed position, Speed Alert will warn the user when speeding even if the user does not have a navigation session running (i.e. even from the main menu of the application). As default, Speed Alert is configured to warn the user both visually (large blinking speed sign with the posted speed limit) and auditory (pulsing warning sound).
Around 650 drivers using their own car and their own mobile.
Equipment carried by test users
The solution is built upon the commercial offboard navigation systems Telia Navigator and Wisepilot for mobile phones. The systems are extended with Speed Alert. The driver can choose between three modes: Navigation mode, map mode or warnings only. An offset can be set by the driver to a value between -5 and +30 km/h and a warning occurs when current speed + the offset exceeds the current speed limit.
Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT
Method for the baseline
Since the Speed Alert system had to be switched on for the data logging to start it was not possible to study how the drivers drove with the system switched off, similarly it was not possible to ask the drivers to download the system, turn it on to log data without having the Speed Alert function activated. Thus, neither a with/without or before/after design was possible in this study. On the other hand, focus was not on how the system affected speed and driving behavior, instead focus was on how the drivers used the system and if they accepted it.
To be able to make up to some degree for not logging “non-usage” data, questionnaires that covered both self estimated change in driver behavior and acceptance issues was used. The questionnaires were issued before downloading and after four weeks use.
Techniques for measurement and data collection
A major field test started in March and ended in August 2009. We got results from around 650 test pilots. Existing and new customers to the navigation system, developed by Appello, have acted as test pilots. Focus has been on how the drivers want to configure their Speed Alert-functionality to really use it and feel comfortable with the system.
Continues wireless transfer of log-data from the clients to an off-board server
Objective (logged data…)
For each driving session where Speed Alert was activated a number of parameters were logged. A new session begins each time Speed Alert is started and also each time any of the settings are changed.
List of parameters: Session id, Customer id (Telia or Wisepilot), User id, Client platform (mobile phone model), Settings: warning offset, Settings: warning type, Start position (GPS coord.), End position (GPS coord.), start time, end time, max speed, mean speed, distance driven per relative speed and speed limits:Distance driven in metres per speed relative to speed limit. There were fifteen speed limits: unknown, variable, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120, and ten relative speed intervals: unknown, <-5, -5-0, 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30 and >30, resulting in a matrix of 150 cells. Example: if someone drives 3000 m with a speed of 73 km/h on a road where the speed limit is 70 km/h, the distance 3000 m is added to the cell that corresponds to speed limit 70 km/h and relative speed 0-5 km/h.
Subjective (questionnaires, focus groups…)
The test pilots were asked to complete three web questionnaires. The recruitment questionnaire had to be completed before the test pilots could download the application to their mobile phones. This questionnaire mainly included demographic questions such as age, gender, years holding a driving licence, mileage etc. Exactly four weeks after activating the application a request to answer a new questionnaire was send out. At the end of the trials all drivers who had activated the application before the first of June and had log data recorded in July, received an SMS inviting them to complete an end questionnaire. These two questionnaires included questions about the application and how it affected the test pilots driving. Due to the low response rate the end questionnaire was however excluded from further analyses.
Recruitment goals and methods
The 657 test pilots’ age ranged from 18 to 81 years, with a mean age of 47 years. 96% of the test pilots were men while 4% were women. On average the test pilots had their driving licence for 27 years and 58% of them had driven 20 000 km or more during the previous year.
69% of the test pilots lived in communities with less than 100 000 inhabitants and their most common drive was to and from their workplace. 69% stated that they were very interested in technology and 97% had previously tried a navigation system while 40% had tried a Speed Alert/ISA-system.
Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution
Each driver has to fill en a start questionnaire before they can enable the functionality.
Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions
VTI-methods, the methods from FESTA are taken into account. Matlab is used for evaluating the log-data.