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General information
Type: Field operational test
Tested system/service: Autonomous Systems
Countries: The Netherlands ? test users
28 partners 36 vehicles
Active from 2001 to 2003
?URIs of the form "?" are not allowed.
Tom Alkim
The Netherlands
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Congestion and traffic accidents occur relatively frequently on the primary road network of the Netherlands. At present the Dutch road authorities are making every attempt at finding solutions to reduce congestion on the road network. Examples of these attempts include the use of the emergency lane as a traffic lane and dynamic route information systems. Also being investigated is the use of narrow lanes to increase carriageway capacity. This could lead to improved traffic flow although it adds to the complexity of the driving task and possibly to the detriment of road safety.

Lane Departure Warning Assistant (LDWA) systems have the potential to positively affect road safety and, when used in combination with narrow lanes, capacity and traffic flow. To determine the potential effects of large scale LDWA implementation in the Netherlands, a field operational trial (FOT) was initiated.

On the basis of the experiences gained in the Field Operational Test (FOT) and following a discussion of the results, recommendations will be made regarding possible policy instruments that may be deployed. This includes addressing aspects such as the wide scale implementation of LDWA and developing a vision on lane/course keeping systems and ADA technologies in the Netherlands.

Key milestones of the project

  • 2001: Start of the project
  • 1st October 2002: Start of FOT
  • February 2003: End of FOT
  • 11 September 2003: Official Presentation of the Results

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

Start: October 2002

Duration: 5 months

Geographical Coverage


Link with other related Field Operational Tests


1) to gain insight into the consequences and effects that LDWA can have on the road traffic situation in the Netherlands;

2) to increase awareness with respect to the concept of LDWA and Advanced Driver Assistant (ADA) systems and to communicate the postulated effects of implementation;


Generally it can be concluded that the trial was a success. The collaboration with the many stakeholders enabled estimates to be made of the potential effects that LDWA implementation could bring about. Also an effective communication strategy helped increase awareness of LDWA on a broad front.

Effects of evaluated LDWA systems

LDWA systems will have a slight positive impact on road safety. By implication this also means a marginal impact on incidental congestion. The maximum effect on traffic safety is a reduction of 9% of the casualties sustained in accidents involving heavy goods vehicles on 80, 100 and 120km/h roads in rural areas.

LDWA systems by themselves will have no material affect on structural congestion or on road capacity. However, a reduction in accidents implies a maximum reduction of 11% of delay and traffic queues resulting from incidental congestion. If LDWA systems are used in situations where an extra lane is added by using the emergency lane and/or narrowing existing lanes, there may be a slight positive effect. The effect of LDWA on traffic safety and traffic flow is probably somewhat optimistic due to the following:

  • 100% penetration in the HGV sector is unlikely
  • Drivers cannot prevent all side-swipe and run-off road accidents, even if the LDWA system warns of an impending lane departure
  • The positive effect of LDWA will in time disappear.

Acceptance of LDWA

The evaluation of stakeholder opinions revealed that the LDWA systems evaluated in this trial enjoyed broad user acceptance. Drivers indictaed that they would use the LDWA system for 75% of the time on national roads and 60% of the time on higher speed rural roads.

Consequences for infrastructure

The tested LDWA systems worked well on the majority of roads in the Netherlands. An exception was situations where road maintenance was being carried out. Typically in these situations permanent road markings are not removed and temporary roadwork markings are laid next to them. Obviously the LDWA systems did not know which marking was relevant. However, this is not deemed a system failure nor does it require further attention. These situations are infrequent, of short duration, with lower speed limits and tend to ensure that drivers are more focussed and concentrated on the driving task.

Lessons learned

Main events


Summary, type of funding and budget

AVV (Transport Research Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management)

Cooperation partners and contact persons

  • Public Authorities: AVV (Transport Research Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management)
  • Industry
    • Vehicle Manufacturer:
    • Supplier:
  • Users:
  • Universities:
  • Research Institutes:
  • Others (specify):

Main Contact person

   Tom Alkim, Rijkswaterstaat, Centre for Transport and Navigation, 
   Tel: +31 88 798 24 68

Applications and equipment

Applications tested

Lane Departure Warning Assistance systems

3 types of LDWA were tested. All systems are based on a camera mounted at the front of the truck, positioned in the middle of the windscreen above the lower rim of window. The general lane marking is used for detection of a lane crossing and no warning is raised if the lane change indicator is set.

The 3 systems are:

  • Spurassistent (Daimler): In case of lane crossing, a warning is coming from the radio speaker on the side of the lane crossing. The warning system was not enabled below 60kph.
  • Lane-Guard-Assistant (MAN): Warning coming from the radio speaker on the side of the lane crossing. The warning system was not enabled below 60kph.
  • Safe-Trac (DAF Trucks): Warning but no indication of the side of the lane crossing. The warning system was working on the whole range of speed including below 60kph.


35 trucks and one bus. Trucks were obtained through 23 transport companies and the bus was obtained thanks to a touring company.

Trucks from MAN, DAF Trucks and DaimlerChrysler.

36 drivers, time of exposure was 5 months.

For the data logger equipped trucks, each driver drove during 2 months and 9 drivers were involved.

Equipment carried by test users

5 trucks were equipped with a data logger.


Test equipment


Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

Method for the baseline

Techniques for measurement and data collection

Collected data

Questionnaires were done on 3 occasions. 40 drivers using the LDWA system were concerned and one other group was used as the control group (no LDWA system used). The first questionnaire was distributed before the experiment. The second one was done after the very first uses of the system. The last one was done after a several months of LDWA use.

Logbooks were also filled by the drivers for the comprehension of specific situation behaviour.

Recruitment goals and methods

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

Sources of information

- Report “Op koers!? Resultaten van de proef met het Lane Departure Warning Assistant systeem”, September 2003, AVV