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General information
Type: Field operational test
Tested system/service: Cooperative Systems
Countries: Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden ? test users
32 partners ? vehicles
Active from 01/2011 to 2014
Matthias Schulze
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The European Integrated Project DRIVE C2X, the follow-up project of PRE-DRIVE C2X, started in January 2011 and had its Final Event in July 2014. The project strongly built on previous comprehensive assessment and tests of cooperative systems , which were considered to be mature enough for large-scale field operational tests. A consistent Europe-wide testing environment for cooperative systems was created, including seven test sites in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. The project developed the testing methodology and assessed the impacts of cooperative systems on users, environment and society.

European Integrated Project (IP) under Framework Program FP7

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

Geographical Coverage

Seven test sites in Finland, France (SCORE@F), Germany (simTD), Italy, Netherlands, Spain (SISCOGA) and Sweden.

Link with other related Field Operational Tests



The objective of DRIVE C2X carried out comprehensive assessment of cooperative Systems through Field Operational Tests in various places in Europe in order to verify their benefits and to pave the way for market implementation. This general objective was split into four major technical objectives:

  • Create a harmonised Europe-wide testing environment for cooperative systems
  • Coordinate the tests carried out in parallel throughout the DRIVE C2X community
  • Evaluate cooperative systems
  • Promote cooperative driving.

The project has completed. Information regarding the results can be found via:


In total eight different cooperative functions were successfully tested with 750 drivers in seven European countries: in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherland, Spain and Sweden. In total, more than 200 vehicles drove more than 1,5 million km and the faultless performance of system and functions under all relevant traffic and climate conditions proved that the system is mature for Europe-wide deployment . The safety impacts of the DRIVE C2X functions are clearly positive. Drivers react to information and warning signals.

  • IVS Speed limit and Weather warning showed most potential to decrease fatalities: o Assuming a 100% penetration rate, IVS speed limit that provides continuous information would reduce on average 23% in fatalities and 13% in injuries. Weather Warning would lead to 6% less fatalities and 5% less injuries.
  • It is assumed that the penetration rates would be in 2020 highest 12% and 76% in 2030. For IVS speed limit, this would lead to the reduction in fatalities up to 3% in 2020 and up to 16% in 2030.
  • Assuming a 100% penetration rate, Road works warning would decrease fatalities by 3%, Emergency brake light warning and Traffic jam ahead warning by 2%. These functions would decrease injuries by 2% assuming all vehicles are equipped.

The DRIVE C2X project successfully measured and analysed direct and short-term effects of drivers’ use of the DRIVE C2X functions. The safety impacts of the DRIVE C2X functions DRIVE C2X 07/07/2014 Deliverable D11.6 Version 1.0 10 were found to be positive even for functions aimed at relatively infrequent events. Environmental benefits in terms of reduction in fuel consumption ad CO2 emissions were also achieved for three functions. Based on both user behaviour and preference measurements, the results of the project clearly show the significant potential of cooperative systems.

Also the results of the FOTs indicate positive impacts on travel comfort. Specifically, journey quality is improved in terms of decreased user uncertainty and stress, and feeling of safety and comfort.

Considering the proven safety impact as well as the perceived increase in comfort the promising user acceptance does not come as a surprise. Nine out of ten test users highly welcome the DRIVE C2X system, and that they are willing to use it if it is available on their vehicles.

Lessons learned

In order to make cooperative systems happen on European roads DRIVE C2X was not limited to test and evaluation of C2X functions. The project did also describe deployment strategies for C2X communication based on realistic business models. The latter were developed on the basis of more than 50 interviews with representatives across all important stakeholder groups that showed evidence for economic viability and indicated that an open platform concept allowing commercial services by third parties is the key to economic success.

A working C2X system requires communication infrastructure on the roadside. Since it are still public authorities, who are supposed to invest in this, it is of utmost importance, that the ratio between the benefits of the system and its costs is clearly positive. To prove this the project has also conducted a benefit cost analysis, where monetary equivalents have been assigned to the benefits identified in the impact assessment.

Even with a low penetration rate the benefit cost ratio (BCR) was 2, showing twice as much benefit as compared to costs. With a high penetration rate the benefits could almost be seven times higher than costs. This clearly shows that an investment in cooperative systems is money well spent also for road operators and public authorities.

However, proving the benefits of a system and showing its economic viability and meaningfulness is only one side of the coin. It is equally important to create awareness for this new technology. Not only at experts´ side, but also at the side of the “interested public”. To achieve this DRIVE C2X organized a series of test site events with the public invited to one of them and was also present on all major ITS conferences and congresses and even produced two short videos that explain the benefits of cooperative systems in an easy to perceive way.

Main events


Summary, type of funding and budget


Budget: 18.9 mio. €, from which 12.4 mio. € EC funding.


Financing: The DRIVE C2X project is co-funded by the European Commission Information Society and Media in the 7th Framework Programme.

Cooperation partners and contact persons

Consortium: The consortium consists of 32 partners and 10 support partners. Please find a detailed list about partners under:

Project coordinator: Matthias Schulze, Daimler AG,

  • Automotive OEMs

Adam Opel, Audi, BMW Forschung und Technik *, Centro Ricerche Fiat, Daimler, Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen, Honda Research Institute Europe*, Peugeot Citroen Automobiles, Renault, Volvo Personenvagnar

  • Electronics and supplier industry, telcos

Continental*, Delphi Delco Electronics Europe, Denso Automotive Deutschland *, FT – Orange Labs*, Hitachi Europe SAS, NEC Europe, Renesas Technology Europe, Robert Bosch*

  • Software developers

SAP, Vector Informatik*

  • Traffic engineers

PTV Planung Transport Verkehr

  • Research institutes

Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Centro Tecnológico de Automoción de Galicia*, Chalmers University, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Facit Research, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft FOKUS, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Saarland*, Institut Nationale de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Technische Universität Graz, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca, University of Surrey, Technical Research Centre of Finland

  • Road Operators

Autostrada del Brennero, City of Tampere*, Hessische Straßen- und Verkehrsverwaltung, Rijkswaterstaat*

  • Others

ERTICO – ITS Europe, European Center for Information and Communication Technologies, Nokian Renkaat*

FOT execution: Detailed information regarding the operation and the seven test sites can be found via the project's web site:

Applications and equipment

Applications tested

Test sites: DRIVE C2X combines seven test sites. Two types of test sites are distinguished:

  • System Test Sites (STS) and
  • Functional Test Sites (FTS).


Please see the project's website to get detailed information on the equipment and vehicles deployed.

Equipment carried by test users


Test equipment


Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

Method for the baseline

Techniques for measurement and data collection

Data is owned by test sites. The availability will be discussed case by case in FOT-Net Data.

Recruitment goals and methods

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

Use cases: For the tests different use cases were developed during the predecessor PRE-DRIVE C2X project. Please see full list of use cases via:

Sources of information