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A glossary of terms relating to FOTs.

Contents: Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Accident A traffic collision (motor vehicle collision, motor vehicle accident, car accident, or car crash) is when a road vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other geographical or architectural obstacle. Traffic collisions can result in injury, property damage, and death.
  • Analysis
  • Application is a software running on a system implementing one or more functions.



  • Comparison situation is the situation that will be used for comparison within one analysis.
  • Controlled factors are those factors that are kept constant within one analysis. The data are filtered such that only occurrences in which the controlled factors assume the intended values are selected.


  • Damage
  • Data acquisition is the process of sampling or recording data (real world data) for computer processing. It includes acquisition of pure sensor data, as well as acquisition of data from real-time and off-line services, and self-reported data.
  • Derived measure is a single measure calculated from a direct measure (e. g. by applying mathematical or statistical operations) or a combination of one or more direct or derived measures.
  • Direct measure are measures logged directly from a sensor, without further manipulations except linear transformations.
  • Download is the transfer of data from server to a client.


  • Event is something that happens in a specific period of time which is individuated combining (preprocessed) measures according to predefined rules.
  • Event data recorder is a logging device that, when triggered by an event such as a crash, stores the information about the few seconds leading up to the event (and throughout the event).
  • External measure is an external measure is provided by data sources outside of the log equipment used in the study.


  • FOT is a study undertaken to evaluate a function, or functions, under normal operating conditions in environments typically encountered by the host vehicle(s) using quasi-experimental methods.
  • FOT Glossary
  • Fatality
  • Function is the implementation of a set of rules to achieve a specified goal.


  • Hypothesis is a specific statement linking a cause to an effect and based on a mechanism linking the two. It is applied to one or more functions and can be tested with statistical means by analysing specific performance indicators in specific scenarios. A hypothesis is expected to predict the direction of the expected change.


  • Incident is something unforeseen in the course of action. In driving a vehicle in traffic, something which changes the foreseeable action (speed, direction) of the vehicle.


  • Latency A latency period: the time between stimulus and response. In data acquisition generally the time between real world event (or stimulus) and the recording of that event.


  • Measure is the the magnitude of a quantity such as length or mass relative to a unit of measurement, such as a meter or a kilogram.


  • Near Crash is defined as a conflict situation requiring a rapid, severe evasive maneuver to avoid a crash.



  • Performance indicator is a quantitative or qualitative indicator, derived from one or several measures, agreed on beforehand, expressed as a percentage, index, rate or other value, which is monitored at regular or irregular intervals and can be compared to one or more criteria.
  • Pilot According to the European Commission, Pilot projects are pre-deployment projects occuring last in the chain of projects towards deployment.


  • Research question is a general question to be answered by compiling and testing related specific hypotheses.


  • Scenario a use case in a specific situation.
  • Self-reported measure is a subjective data reported via questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, etc.
  • Sensor is a device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse which can be interpreted as a measure by an instrument/observer.
  • Situation is one specific level or a combination of more specific levels of situational variables.
  • Situational variable is an aspect of the surroundings made up of distinguishable levels. At any point in time at least one of these levels must be valid.
  • Sub-event is a specific sub-set of an event.
  • Surrogate Measures
  • System is a combination of hardware and software enabling one or more functions
  • System state is the current status of a system based on its setting.


  • Test scenario is the test setup in which scenarios are triggered in order to collect data specific to this scenario
  • Treatment period/phase is the part of the data collection during which the function(s) are switched on by the experimental leader, such that they are either active all the time, or can be switched on or off by the driver.
  • Treatment within comparison situation is a scenario with system under evaluation "turned on"
  • Trigger "Marker" in the data, indicating instances that can be of interest for research.
  • Trip includes the sequence from the vehicle ignition key being turned on until it is turned off (even if the vehicle is not moving during this time frame).


  • Upload is the transfer of data from client to a server.
  • Use case is a specific event in which a system is expected to behave according to a specified function.


  • Vehicle bus is an in-vehicle internal communications network that connects different components and modules.