Jump to navigationJump to search
General information
Type: Naturalistic driving study
Tested system/service:
Countries: France, Greece, Italy, UK, Germany, Austria, Israel, Australia, Finland, Czech Republic, Spain, Portugal ? test users
29 partners 5 vehicles
Active from 2009/01/01 to 2011
Stéphane Laporte
Catalogue entries
Data catalogue Tools catalogue
Data sets used in this FOT:

No data set is
linked to this FOT

Click here to create a new
data set or here to browse
existing data sets to link
them to this FOT

The following tools
were used in this FOT:

No tool is linked
to this FOT

Click here to create a
new tool or here to
existing tools
to link them to this FOT

2-BE-SAFE, officially started on January 15th 2009, is a focused research collaborative project co-funded by European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, Theme 7 – Sustainable Surface Transport.

The aim of the 2-BE-SAFE project was to design and implement a broad-ranging research program that produces fundamental knowledge on PTW riding behaviour, performance, and safety - alone and when interacting with other road users - that can be used to inform and the development of a broad and integrated package of countermeasures/public policies for improving the safety of PTW riders in Europe.

The project consisted of an innovative program of research, involving partners from Europe, Israel and Australia, that directly targets those behavioural and ergonomic factors cited in the MAIDS study as contributing to PTW crashes.

Guidelines and recommendation have been drawn for the observation of PTW behaviours and for the determination of countermeasures towards improvement of PTWs' road safety, based on the fundamental knowledge acquired in the project's research work packages. A set of countermeasures have been proposed that cover the safety problems that were identified during the in-depth studies related to: infrastructure and weather conditions, riders’ behaviour and interactions with other road users and conspicuity issues. The potential impacts of each proposed countermeasure, as well as its expected costs, implementation barriers as well as acceptance have been assessed. The proposed countermeasures have been ranked and key success factors have been proposed.

European project co-funded by the seventh framework programme, sustainable surface transport.

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

The duration of the FOT execution (Naturalistic riding study) was not defined initially but planned to last for about six months.

Geographical Coverage

France, Greece, Italy, UK.

Link with other related Field Operational Tests


The aim of Work Package 1 was is to identify the factors that contribute to PTW crashes across Europe, including rider / driver factors and characteristics of the road environment (road infrastructure and weather conditions). The analysis has been conducted at two levels: at a macroscopic level, using accident statistics from national accident databases; and at a microscopic level, using appropriate models, interviews and in depth accident data.


The key results of this research activity are:

  • the identification of 20 prevailing scenarios in 5 European countries that account for most fatal PTW accidents, and of the causal factors contributing to accidents


  • a list of the most relevant critical factors related to infrastructure (roadway design and maintenance defects, road surface conditions and so on). The analyses conducted provided the opportunity to thoroughly evaluate critical infrastructure parameter (curve radii, cross-fall, texture, unevenness and skid resistance) combinations.


  • a predictive model of the relation between precipitation and PTW accidents, with a limit due to the lack of exposure data for PTW riding.


Lessons learned

Main events


Summary, type of funding and budget

Cooperation partners and contact persons

  • Vehicle Manufacturer: Piaggio ITALY
  • Users: Federation of European Motorcyclists’ Associations (FEMA)BELGIUM
  • Universities: Technical University Dresden (TUD)GERMANY; University of Firenze (UNIFI)ITALY; University of Modena & Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE) ITALY; University of Padova (UNIPD)ITALY; University Vienna (UNIVIE)AUSTRIA; National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) GREECE; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (UoT)GREECE; Faculty of Human Kinetics/ Technical University of Lisbon (FMH/UTL) PORTUGAL; Ben Gurion University of the Negev (BGU)ISRAEL; Monash University Accident Research centre (MUARC)AUSTRALIA; University of Nottingham (UoN)UK
  • Research Institutes: European Research Transport (ERT)FRANCE; The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS) FRANCE; Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques (CEESAR)FRANCE; Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BAST) GERMANY; Transportation Research Laboratory (TRL) UK; FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG (FACTUM); Österreichiches Forschungs- und Prüfzentrum Arsenal Ges.m.b.H (AIT)AUSTRIA; Center for Research & Technology Hellas/ Hellenic Institute of Transport (CERTH/HIT) GREECE; Institute for Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS)GREECE; Fundación CIDAUT (CIDAUT)SPAIN; Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)FINLAND; Transport Research Centre of Brno (CDV)CZECH; Api R&D FRANCE
  • Others: Austrian Road Safety Board (KFV) AUSTRIA (private non-profit association)

Applications and equipment

Applications tested


  • 6 PTWs have been instrumented accordingly to fulfil the requirements set in WP2 of the 2-BE-SAFE naturalistic riding pilot study, which was also conducted within WP2.
  • an instrumented car has been modified to enable it to be used to study the behaviour and performance of PTW riders interacting with car drivers (WP 5).
  • 2 riding simulators have been tuned iteratively and partially validated (objective and subjective validation) within WP5.
  • a driving simulator has been modified by adding a blooming effect that improves the realism of the rendered situations, and the conspicuity of objects which emits lights. The rear view rendering system has been redesigned, that uses the car rear mirrors location and real mirrors to let the driver see the rear scene. This allows the driver to search for information by moving his/her head. The driving simulator has been used to study the conspicuity of riders passing cars (WP5).
  • a video-based tool for investigating motorcyclists’ risk awareness (criticality assessment) has been designed and developed. It has been used within WP3.

Equipment carried by test users


Test equipment


Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

A pilot naturalistic riding study (NRS) was conducted within Work Package 2, using the instrumented motorcycles (as described in the WP4 section). This naturalistic riding study was a first pan-European attempt (worldwide only one NRS was undertaken in Australia at the same time with the 2-BE-SAFE one). The NRS was undertaken in Italy, Greece, the UK, and France with the objective of validating the PTW instrumentation and the methodological approach of the experiment. Additional objectives involved the identification (using the collected data) PTW riding behaviours and the development of suitable algorithms that could detect PTW riding patterns and conflicts automatically.

Method for the baseline

Techniques for measurement and data collection

Recruitment goals and methods

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

2-BE-SAFE has applied a large variety of scientific research methodologies. Some of these methods have been applied for first time; some of them were not applied on the field of PTW safety before. Last, some methodologies also received significant improvement within the project. All the experience and knowledge acquired within the research activities conducted have been analysed and then summarized into a set of guidelines and policy recommendations (Work Package 6). Two main documents have been produced. The first document summarizes experiences and issues particularly relevant for the observation of driver behaviour of PTW riders with respect to PTW safety. Based on feedback on the various research studies conducted within the project, it proposes improvement in tools and methodologies. It also proposes new topics for PTW safety research. This guideline is intended to be used by researchers and research stakeholders for future research programs. The second document consist in a comprehensive list of PTW safety measures, with indication on their advantages, shortcomings, potential implementations barriers and key success factors. The measures are assessed, based on their expected impacts, costs and benefits, and transferability. The guidelines presents each of the identified PTW safety measure assessed and ranked. It is intended to be used by stakeholders and practitioners.

Sources of information


published deliverables

Deliverable 2.2: Design of a naturalistic riding study - Implementation Plan