IVBSS

From FOT-Net WIKI
Jump to: navigation, search
IVBSS
IVBSS.jpg
General information
Type: Field operational test
Tested system/service: Autonomous Systems
Countries: USA  ? test users
9 partners 26 vehicles
Active from 11/2005 to 04/2011
Contact
http://www.its.dot.gov/ivbss/
James R. Sayer
jimsayer@umich.edu
University of Michigan
USA
Catalogue entries
Data catalogue Tools catalogue
Data sets used in this FOT:

No data set is
linked to this FOT

Click here to create a new
data set or here to browse
existing data sets to link
them to this FOT

The following tools
were used in this FOT:

No tool is linked
to this FOT

Click here to create a
new tool or here to
browse
existing tools
to link them to this FOT

The field operational test (FOT) of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) program will be performed by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute using 16 passenger cars and 10 commercial trucks equipped with an integrated crash avoidance system.

The goal of the IVBSS program is to conduct a field test to collect data to objectively assess the potential safety benefits and driver acceptance associated with prototype integrated crash warning systems. Both platforms have three integrated crash-warning subsystems (forward crash, lateral drift, and lane change/merge warnings); the light-vehicle platform also has a fourth subsystem, curve-speed warning.

For the light-vehicle portion of the FOT, 108 lay drivers will operate test vehicles in place of their own personal cars for a period of six weeks. Forty commercial-truck drivers from a commercial fleet will operate heavy trucks in place of the Class 8 tractors they normally use as their work vehicles for a period of five months.

All vehicles will be instrumented to capture information regarding the driving environment, driver activity, system behavior, and vehicle kinematics. Driver information will be captured through a series of subjective questionnaires, focus groups, and debriefing sessions to determine driver acceptance and to gain insight for improving future versions of integrated crash warning systems.

Data from the FOT can be used as the basis for answering many questions concerning the warning system and how drivers used it. The FOT analysis will address three broad study areas:

  • Driver acceptance and driver understanding of the crash warning system;
  • Driving performance and driver behaviour with and without the system, including safety-related findings; and
  • Potential successes and challenges of integrated crash warning products, when deployed.

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

The FOT phase of the program started in June 2008 and will run until November 2010.

Geographical Coverage

Link with other related Field Operational Tests

Objectives

The primary goal of the IVBSS program is to assess the potential safety benefits and driver acceptance associated with prototype integrated crash warning systems. The prototype crash warning systems developed during Phase I will be evaluated during a field operational test to determine whether it: 1) is easy to use and understand by the average driver; 2) will yield measurable safety benefits; and 3) will not pose any additional risk by overwhelming, confusing, or distracting drivers.

To reach the goals of the FOT, it is necessary to obtain the users’ appraisal of the system and to make an objective assessment of how it impacts the driving process. The unstructured character of naturalistic driving requires an investigative approach in making the objective assessment, and the extensive data set will need to be mined through creative inquiry modelled after similar previous UMTRI efforts.

Goals and objectives specific to the light-vehicle platform include ensuring that the system functions as intended on the Honda Accord, and that lay drivers find it acceptable in terms of its performance and ease of use.

Goals and objectives specific to the heavy-truck platform include ensuring that the warning system functions as intended on the International ProStar 8600-series tractor, and that commercial drivers find the system acceptable in terms of its performance and ease of use.

Program Timeline IVBSS.jpg

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, http://www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/Program+Description

Results

Results will be released in December 2010.

Lessons learned

Results will be released in December 2010.

Main events

Financing

Summary, type of funding and budget

$32.3 million from The U.S. Department of Transportation.

Cooperation partners and contact persons

9 partners: the University of Michigan - Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) and partners Visteon Corp., Eaton Corp., Honda R&D Americas Inc., International Truck and Engine, TK Holdings, Battelle, Con-way Freight, and the Michigan Department of Transportation.

  • Public Authorities:
  • Industry
    • Vehicle Manufacturer:
    • Supplier:
  • Users:
  • Universities:
  • Research Institutes:
  • Others (specify):

Main Contact persons

Project Lead:

   James R. Sayer
   jimsayer@umich.edu
   P: +1 734-764-4158
   F: +1 734-764-1221

Co-principal Investigator:

   David J. LeBlanc
   leblanc@umich.edu
   P: +1 734-936-1063
   F: +1 734-936-1068
   University of Michigan
   Transportation Research Institute
   2901 Baxter Rd.
   Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150
   Human Factors/ Room 305 (James R. Sayer)
   Engineering Research/ Room 210 (David J. LeBlanc)

Applications and equipment

Applications tested

The systems to be tested were developed and implemented by Visteon and Takata on the light-vehicle platform, and developed and implemented by Eaton and Takata on the heavy-truck platform. Both platforms have the following integrated crash warning functions:

  • Forward crash warning, which warns drivers of the potential for a rear-end crash with another vehicle;
  • Lateral drift warning, which warns drivers that they may be drifting inadvertently from their lane or departing the roadway; and
  • Lane-change/merge warning, which warns drivers of possible unsafe lateral maneuvers based on adjacent or approaching vehicles in adjacent lanes, and includes full-time side object presence indicators.

In addition, the light-vehicle platform also includes the curve-speed warning, which warns drivers that they are driving too fast into an upcoming curve and, as a result, might depart the roadway.

Vehicle

16 passenger cars and 10 commercial trucks equipped with an integrated crash avoidance system.

All vehicles will be instrumented to capture information regarding the driving environment, driver activity, system behavior, and vehicle kinematics. Both platforms have three integrated crash-warning subsystem systems (forward crash, lateral drift, and lane-change/merge warnings); the light-vehicle platform also has a fourth subsystem, curve-speed warning.

The passenger cars in which the integrated systems are being installed are a mix of model year 2006 and 2007 Honda Accord EXs (four 2006 and twelve 2007 models). These vehicles are four-door sedans with V6 engines. Eighteen vehicles in all will be equipped, 16 will serve as research vehicles and be lent to participants, one 2006 model will serve as a spare in the event a vehicle in the field needs to be replaced, and one 2006 model will serve as a development vehicle on which troubleshooting can be performed. All 18 vehicles are gold-toned with leather interiors, ABS, vehicle stability assist, six-CD stereo systems, and conventional cruise control. The vehicles do not include navigation systems.

For the heavy-truck platform, the FOT will be conducted with the assistance and cooperation of the Con-way Freight. Con-way Freight is a regional and nationwide less-than-a-truckload (LTL) company that specializes in the transportation and delivery of palletized freight. Companywide, Con-way employs over 30,000 professional drivers and operates over 32,000 power units (tractors) and approximately 80,000 trailers. In addition to Con-way’s willingness and commitment to participate in the FOT, the fleet also meets a number of other criteria necessary for a successful FOT. These include a willingness to purchase the tractors, logistical and operational constraints, personnel considerations, and proximity of the fleet to the other program partners.

For the FOT, Con-way will operate tractors from its Romulus, Michigan, service and distribution center. At this terminal, Con-way operates approximately 80 tractors and 220 trailers in both line-haul1 and a local pick-up and delivery (P&D) operations. Preliminary exposure estimates show that 80 percent of the miles traveled by the FOT vehicles will be on limited-access roads, while the remaining 20 percent will be on major surface roads. Each FOT tractor will be assigned to a specific line-haul and P&D route. During the day, a tractor will be employed on a P&D route, while at night the same tractor will be used for a line-haul route. The drivers for these routes are bid out every year and are based on seniority. Con-way does not run a “slip-seat” operation; rather, drivers are assigned to tractors and aside from vacations and sick time (and any intentional rotation of tractors per the experimental design), the same drivers will be driving the same tractors on the same routes for the entire FOT.

Equipment carried by test users

Infrastructure

Test equipment

Light-Vehicle Platform

High level list of systems installed:

  • Electronic rack in the trunk, behind a secure partition, holding modules for the integrated system and the Data Acquisition System (DAS);
  • Seven radar sensors;
  • Five cameras;
  • Two GPS systems;
  • A modified set of side-view mirrors, each with a Blind Spot Detection icon and a camera for the DAS;
  • Additional sensors and driver display systems;
  • Power electronics.

As for the Data Acquisition System, the equipment package consists of four subsystems comprising a main computer, video processor, power controller, and cellular communications unit. The main computer consists of an EBX form-factor single-board computer (including display, and Ethernet controllers), two PC104-plus CAN cards, a PC104 analog and digital interface card, and an automotive-grade hard disk. All of these components operate over a –30°C to +85°C temperature range. The video processor consists of an EBX form-factor single-board computer (including display, audio, and Ethernet controllers), two PC104-plus MPEG-4 encoder cards, a digital interface card, and an automotive-grade hard disk. The temperature range of this system also operates from –30°C to +85°C.

Data retrieval for the light-vehicle platform occurs when the participants return the vehicles at the conclusion of the six-week testing period. Upon arrival, the DAS is connected to a dedicated intranet, at which point the contents of both the video and main computers on the DAS are uploaded to computer servers for loading into an FOT database and file backup.

Heavy-Truck Platform

The heavy-truck DAS is almost identical to that described in the light-vehicle section. Differences include the arrangement of the external connectors to accommodate the integration of the DAS in the truck, and the method of downloading DAS data. On the heavy-truck platform, data is downloaded from each truck every three weeks by visiting the trucks at the Con-way terminal. Downloading consists of connecting the DAS to the server via a network cable, at which time the downloading of data automatically begins. Once data is on the server, it can be accessed remotely.

Methodology

Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

Light vehicle extended pilot test (EPT) was conducted between November 2008 and March 2009 to demonstrate that the program is ready to launch the light-vehicle field operational test (FOT). The specific criteria for readiness are: 1) positive driver acceptance of the integrated system, 2) integrated system performance in naturalistic driving that is consistent with expectations, 3) reliable operation of the hardware and software onboard the test vehicles, and 4) operational processes that are practical and efficient for conducting the FOT and maintaining the necessary quality standards.

The heavy-trucks (HT) extended pilot test was conducted between November and December 2008 to provide evidence of system performance (alert rate and reliable operation) and driver acceptance prior to conduct of the field operational test (FOT). The results of this test were to be used to modify the HT system performance and functionality as required, prior to the start of the FOT. The EPT entailed use of an integrated crash warning system in a heavy truck by seven drivers, over a period of five days each, in the course of their regular duties as drivers for Con-way Freight at the Ann Arbor distribution center.

Method for the baseline

Light-Vehicle Platform

The integrated system will be disabled for the first 12 days of the driver’s 40-day use of the FOT vehicle. This portion of the test will serve as the baseline period, where drivers will not receive any information or system warnings. Following this period, the integrated system will be enabled for 28 days, during which the integrated system will provide warnings to the drivers. Each participant’s driving behavior and performance measures will be monitored for the duration of the test (system disabled and enabled).

Heavy-Truck Platform

FOT participants are operating the trucks and conducting Con-way’s normal delivery business over a 10-month period. The first 2 months of vehicle use serve as the baseline period, while the following 8 months are the treatment period. During the baseline period, no system functionalities or warnings are provided to the driver, but all system sensors and equipment are running in the background. At the beginning of the third month of participation, the integrated crash warning system’s functionality is made available and warnings are provided where appropriate.

Techniques for measurement and data collection

Driver information will be captured through a series of subjective questionnaires, focus groups, and debriefing sessions to determine driver acceptance and to gain insight for improving future versions of integrated crash warning systems.

Light-Vehicle Platform

Seventeen DAS units were designed and fabricated to support data collection during the light-vehicle FOT. The systems are installed in each vehicle as a complement to the integrated warning system and function as a data-processing device as well as permanent recorder of the numerical and video data collected during the field tests.

Data retrieval for the light-vehicle platform occurs when the participants return the vehicles at the conclusion of the six-week testing period. Upon arrival, the DAS is connected to a dedicated intranet, at which point the contents of both the video and main computers on the DAS are uploaded to computer servers for loading into an FOT database and file backup.

Heavy-Vehicle Platform

A data acquisition system is installed on each truck, and serves as a permanent recorder of the numerical and video data collected during the field tests. To monitor the functionality of the DAS and integrated crash warning system, UMTRI uses customized software to compute and report summary statistics that identify system problems and failures. This summary diagnostic information is downloaded using an on-board cell modem to an UMTRI server following each ignition cycle. This approach provides current summary and diagnostic information for engineers to remotely monitor the fleet’s health on a continuous basis throughout the test.

Retrieval of heavy-truck data is performed manually. An on-site server and data download mechanism are located on Con-way premises. The research vehicles have designated parking spots located alongside a maintenance facility where data retrieval “umbilical” cords need only to be plugged in to initiate data transfer on a regular basis, approximately every three weeks per vehicle. Data from the fleet is then uploaded into the appropriate database and backed-up for archiving.

Recruitment goals and methods

108 drivers for the light vehicles, for a period of 6 weeks;

40 commercial-truck drivers for a period of 5 months; The overall total mileage for the fleet is expected to be around 700,000 miles, with 15,000 hour of driving.

Participant Recruitment for the Light-Vehicle FOT

Potential participants identified from the State records will be contacted through U.S. mail to solicit their participation in the FOT. The initial contact will not mention the nature of the study, but indicate only that participants will be asked to drive a car and will receive financial compensation for their time. Interested people receiving the response will be asked to contact UMTRI. An UMTRI research assistant will then screen respondents to ensure they meet the predetermined qualification criteria (such as age, gender, and miles driven in the past year) to satisfy the proposed experimental design.

Individuals who meet the qualifications and are needed to satisfy the experimental design will receive a brief overview of the IVBSS program and the FOT. The final selection of participants will be dependent upon the match of an individual with predefined selection criteria to the proposed experimental design and the participant's availability for taking and returning a vehicle per the test schedule. Potential participants will further be informed of any benefits or risks associated with their participation. If individuals find the conditions of participation to be generally agreeable, a specific date and time will be arranged for them to visit UMTRI for orientation and training.

Participant Recruitment for the Heavy-Truck FOT

Ten FOT tractors will be based at Con-way’s Romulus terminal. Based at this facility are over 100 drivers, 43 line-haul tractors, 33 daily-delivery tractors, 217 28-foot line-haul trailers, and 71 daily-delivery trailers ranging in size from 42 to 53 feet.

The following is a breakdown of drivers by age group:

• Age 20 to 29 (12%);

• Age 30 to 39 (28%);

• Age 40 to 49 (37%);

• Age 50 to 59 (19%); and

• Age 60 and older (4%).

A notice will be posted at the terminal and at least two information sessions will be held to inform potentially interested drivers what participation in the FOT entails. If there are more interested drivers than are needed for the FOT, then drivers will be selected somewhat randomly. For example, all other factors being equal, a driver with more experience at Con-way Freight would be selected to participate in the FOT over a driver with less Con-way experience. The rationale for this decision is that it is important to reduce the likelihood of driver turnover in the FOT, and while not a guarantee, it is assumed that a driver with more experience at Con-way would be less likely to leave the company in the midst of participating in the FOT.

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

Major fourth-year deliverables will include field operational test data analysis plans for each platform. The data analysis plans will detail the research questions that will be addressed. This includes research hypotheses and descriptions of the types of statistical analyses to be performed. For both platforms, the data analysis plans are aimed at questions related to changes in driving performance with, and driver acceptance of the integrated crash warning systems.

Categories of analysis include the following:

  • Characterizing exposure data by travel patterns, roadway variables and environmental conditions,
  • Reporting on the integrated crash warning system¡¦s performance in terms of alert rates, including false alerts,
  • Safety-related observations such as drivers¡¦ response to warnings and changes in driving performance (such as conflict management) or behaviors (such as engagement in non-driving related tasks), and
  • Drivers' subjective perceptions of the system.

Examples of the individual variables to be examined and reported include:

  • The rate and circumstances of various types of crash warning alerts, including false alerts;
  • The fraction of travel distance or time that system functions are available to the driver;
  • Individual driving styles observed (based on measures that portray degrees of conflict tolerance, speeds, and lane change frequencies);
  • Distributions of trips, trip distances, and trip times;
  • Availability of digital map coverage, including exposure to roadways having the higher-accuracy Advanced Driver Assistance Systems coverage;
  • Travel patterns;
  • Road class and roadway attributes;
  • Weather variables (precipitation, temperature);
  • Ambient lighting (time of day);
  • Local traffic densities (using surrogate metrics based on onboard data); and
  • Driver characteristics and information (age, gender, typical mileage, years of driving experience, driving record, etc.).

In-depth data analysis will not begin until data collection from the individual FOTs is completed. Since the heavy-truck field test will be finished before the light-vehicle FOT, analysis will begin with data from the heavy-truck platform. Commonalities in the integrated systems on the two platforms, the manner in which the data are collected, and how data are managed in a relational database will lead to many similarities in not only what research questions are asked, but also how the analyses are performed. Many of the basic routines and statistical tests used in analyzing the heavy-truck field data will be directly applicable to the light-vehicle field test. It is worth noting that there will be a significant difference in volume of the data collected between the two platforms. Data volumes for the heavy-truck field test will be approximately three times larger than that for the light-vehicle test. This is due to the dramatic differences in mileage accumulation achieved by commercial trucks relative to typical passenger vehicles, despite the fact that one-fifth as many drivers are participating and the overall duration of the heavy-truck test is shorter.

The four-month period following completion of each FOT will be used to complete detailed data analyses and preparation of draft reports.

Sources of information

IVBSS Final Report: http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/NVS/Crash%20Avoidance/Technical%20Publications/2011/811482.pdf

FOT Plan: http://www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/Program+Description

Light Vehicles Pilot Test Summary: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/63005/1/102285.pdf

Heavy Trucks Pilot Test Summary: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/62989/1/102284.pdf

General Info including all final reports: http://www.umtri.umich.edu/divisionPage.php?pageID=249

Facts about "IVBSS"
CompanyUniversity of Michigan +
ContactJames R. Sayer +
CountryUSA +
EndedApril 2011 +
Is type ofField operational test +
NameIVBSS +
Number of partners9 +
Number of vehicles26 +
StartedNovember 2005 +
Tested system or serviceAutonomous Systems +
Websitehttp://www.its.dot.gov/ivbss/ +
Email
This property is a special property in this wiki.
jimsayer@umich.edu +