AOS

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AOS
AOS.jpg
General information
Type: Field operational test
Tested system/service: Autonomous Systems
Countries: The Netherlands 2400 test users
4 partners 2400 vehicles
Active from 09/2007 to 09/2009
Contact
AOS Website
Paul Potters
potters@connekt.nl
Connekt
The Netherlands
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In 2008 and 2009, commissioned by the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management (FileProof project), Connekt undertook a large-scale field operational test with active driver assistance systems, or so called accident prevention systems (APS), for lorries. Over eight months, five different accident prevention systems and a registration system were tested on Dutch motorways.

The aim of the practical test was to gain a better insight into the extent to which accident prevention systems can make a contribution to traffic safety and the flow of traffic on the Dutch road network. The contribution of these systems has only been examined to a limited extent up to now. The following four questions were central in the field operational test:

  1. How effective were the accident prevention systems that were tested?
  2. What is the effect of accident prevention systems on traffic safety?
  3. What is the effect of accident prevention systems on the flow of traffic?
  4. Can the authorities use this test as an incentive to stimulate the use of accident prevention systems?

The different stages of the project:

  • January 2008: Go FOT APS
  • March – June 2008: Selecting/testing of APS, looking for participating hauliers, making agreements with OEMs
  • June – October 2008: Equipping of vehicles
  • 9 July 2008: Recording/processing has started, kick-off FOT
  • September 2008 – May 2009: Testing of accident prevention and registration systems, interviews with drivers and supplementary test track measurements with anti-tilting systems.
  • End of October 2008: Expected first results
  • 16 December 2008: First results will be presented at the FileProof congress.
  • June 2009: Closing event FOT APS

Details of Field Operational Test

Start date and duration of FOT execution

Pilot ran from July 2008 – June 2009

Geographical Coverage

All motorways in the Netherlands were covered.

Link with other related Field Operational Tests

Yes, with recently started project Blind Spot Detection and Signaling Systems

Objectives

The aim of the practical test was to gain a better insight into the extent to which accident prevention systems can make a contribution to traffic safety and the flow of traffic on the Dutch road network. The contribution of these systems has only been examined to a limited extent up to now. The following four questions were central in the field operational test:

  1. How effective were the accident prevention systems that were tested?
  2. What is the effect of accident prevention systems on traffic safety?
  3. What is the effect of accident prevention systems on the flow of traffic?
  4. Can the authorities use this test as an incentive to stimulate the use of accident prevention systems?

Results

The effectiveness of the warnings were assessed for all the systems. The extent to which the driver responded to the warnings effectively was also examined. The results of the measurements in the field operational test show that the various accident prevention systems have an effect on the driving performance of the driver.

The systems reduce the risks of accidents, with the most important indicators being:

  • longer following times between vehicles;
  • reduced risk of tipping;
  • driving less close to the vehicle in front;
  • fewer unintentional line crossings;
  • driving at a more regular speed.

The survey of the drivers shows that their experiences confirm the indicators above.

In the literature there are reports which make quantitative statements about the increase in traffic safety with the large-scale application of accident prevention systems. However, the quality of the models and causal links leave something to be desired, so that the conclusions should be considered with some circumspection. In order to make predictions of the effect on traffic safety anyway, the team developed an own model to estimate an effect, despite the limitations. The estimations indicate that the intervening systems Adaptive Cruise Control and Directional Control will have the biggest effect in the case of large-scale application.

Effect on the flow of traffic

The effect of accident prevention systems on the flow of traffic is predicted on the basis of a model for the flow of traffic that was composed on the basis of the literature and expert meetings. According to that model, the direct effect on the flow of traffic is small, because only small deviations are demonstrated in the average speed and following times between the vehicles which are fitted with an accident prevention system and the reference group without a system. There is an indirect effect because accidents are avoided, but this was difficult to quantify. The scope is limited, because of the relatively small share (approximately 1.6%) of the hours lost by vehicles as a result of accidents caused by lorries.

Experiences of the drivers

Consulting the parties in the market and surveys of drivers showed that the accident prevention systems are appreciated by them in practice, as long as they are adjusted in a way which corresponds to the practical situation. It is particularly important to avoid “excessive signals” with a correct adjustment. The systems make a positive contribution to a feeling of driving safely and the professionalism of the driver’s driving behaviour. The Adaptive Cruise Control system is particularly seen as being very positive. The drivers consider that all the systems are sufficiently robust. Virtually all the participating companies indicated that they will continue to use accident prevention systems after the end of the test. Seven companies have already indicated that they will extend the use of accident prevention systems to lorries which are not yet fitted with them.

Lessons learned

This very special large-scale study involved more than 2,400 lorries supplied by 123 companies. The study lasted 8 months and over a total of around 77 million kilometers driving behaviour was measured during normal daily driving on Dutch motorways. This fact generated both challenges and limitations as well as learning experiences about tackling such large-scale field operational trials and data processing. Learning experiences for which there is much (international) interest.

Main events

Kick-off July 2008, progress presentation December 2008, presentation of results at Connekt-congress September 2009, presentation of results at ITS World Congress in Stockholm, several information meetings with hauliers, information meetings with Dutch industry associations, suppliers of driver assistance systems and OEMs.

Financing

Summary, type of funding and budget

12 Mio EUR

Cooperation partners and contact persons

4 main partners: Dutch ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Connekt, TNO and Buck Consultants International

  • Public Authorities: Dutch Ministry of Transport
  • Industry: TLN, BOVAG, KNV, EVO, VERN, RAI Vereniging, Clifford Electronics, CarrierWeb, Rietveld
    • Vehicle Manufacturers: Volvo, Scania, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, DAF
    • OEMs: Iveco, MAN
  • Users: 123 hauliers
  • Universities: TU Delft was represented in the Scientific Sounding Board
  • Research Institutes: TNO, SWOV
  • Others (specify): Buck Consultants International, Connekt/ITS Netherlands


Main Contact person

   Paul Potters, manager ITS Netherlands, Connekt/ITS Netherlands
   Project leader on behalf of Connekt/ITS Netherlands
   potters@connekt.nl
   +31 15 251 6565

Mr R.L. Verweij, Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management

Mr A.W. van Hattum and Mr P.T. Potters, Connekt/ITS Netherlands

Mr A.A.W. de Ruiter, Mr J.H. Hogema and Mr C.J. Ruijgrok, TNO

Mr M.W.G. Michon and Mr J.H. Smeenk, Buck Consultants International

Applications and equipment

Applications tested

The FOT has tested five different driver assistance systems that can help to prevent accidents involving lorries, namely:

Vehicle

2400 lorries involved supplied by 123 companies.

Equipment carried by test users

Infrastructure

Test equipment

Supplied by Clifford Electronics, OEMs and CarrierWeb

Methodology

Pre-simulation / Piloting of the FOT

Following a study in the literature at the beginning of 2008, the selected accident prevention systems were tested for their functions on a test track and in test drives with transporters. They proved to be sufficiently robust and reliable for use in the everyday practice of a transporter.

Method for the baseline

Independent control groups (with data loggers but without accident Prevention System) served as the baseline.

Techniques for measurement and data collection

On-board units collected data and performed an initial data reduction. Wireless data transfer was used to transmit the data to the data centres.

Collected data

Objective: Distance to vehicles in front, accelerations, decelerations, intensity of braking, rollover risks, line crossings, speed, average speed, speed variation, use of cruise control, headway time, distance to lane marking, warning events, number of incidents, total km driven, average km per day

Subjective: Models, questionnaires at hauliers involved, questionnaires and interviews with truck drivers


Data can be made available. Please contact Paul Potters from Connekt/ITS Netherlands for the use of data.

Recruitment goals and methods

2400 lorry drivers

Methods for the liaison with the drivers during the FOT execution

Buck Consultants International served as the point-of-contact for companies and drivers during the FOT execution.

Methods for data analysis, evaluation, synthesis and conclusions

A large variation of companies were invited to participate in the FOT. Sample size and measurement duration were based on a statistical power analysis. Trucks were matched over the APS groups. in terms of truck type (e.g. tank versus non-tank, tractor-trailer, semi-trailer, etc) and in terms of truck usage (regional versus national transport, typical trip length etc).

On the level of analysis of the FOT data, the statistical method was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Conceptual models were developed and applied for scaling up.

Sources of information

http://www.fot-net.eu./download/stakeholder_meetings/04Fot_net_presentation%20SHWS25-9-08.pdf

http://www.fileproof.nl/aos/publicaties.html

http://www.connekt.nl

- Final report accident Prevention Systems

- Final brochure Results of the accident Prevention Systems

http://www.connekt.nl/www/filelib/userfiles/file/Publicaties/eindrapportage_aos_en.pdf

Facts about "AOS"
CompanyConnekt +
ContactPaul Potters +
CountryThe Netherlands +
EndedSeptember 2009 +
Is type ofField operational test +
NameAOS +
Number of partners4 +
Number of test users2,400 +
Number of vehicles2,400 +
StartedSeptember 2007 +
Tested system or serviceAutonomous Systems +
Websitehttp://www.fileproof.nl/aos/index.html +
Email
This property is a special property in this wiki.
potters@connekt.nl +